Sample reports

 

 

Report 1

Path Number 

Charge code 

Date Rec/rep 

Owner Ref 

Animal ID 

Species Canine

Breed Lhasa Apso

Age 9Y

Sex F

Previous ref

Sample Site: Eyelid and eye

DESCRIPTION

Number of sections examined - 1. The eyelid mass involves the junction between haired and non-haired skin, and consists of a dermal accumulation of groups of round to polygonal cells. There is an ulcerated surface and focal junctional activity. A proportion of cells have moderately pigmented cytoplasm. There is moderate pleomorphism and a high mitotic rate (2-3 mitoses per high power field). The tumour has a margin of excision in the plane of section. A circumferential section of the eye is examined, and reveals a shrunken and distorted globe. Within the eye there is fibroplasia and atrophy of the iris, ciliary body, and choroid, with loss of any recognisable retinal structure. Fibroplasia with melanophages (pigmentary incontinence) and focal dystrophic mineralisation extends into the vitreous space. The cornea is fibrosed, hyalinised and thickened, with pigmented tissue adherent to, and continuous with, the endothelium. The sclera is intact in the sections examined, however there is an area of fibrosis and pigmentary incontinence perpendicular to the scleral coat within thickened choroid noted focally.

DIAGNOSIS

Melanoma (melanosarcoma) of the mucocutaneous eyelid margin

Incidental phthisis of the globe with associated atrophy of uveal structures, loss of retina, and extensive fibrosis. Focal changes are suggestive of possible ocular rupture or penetration, however this cannot be confirmed in this end stage eye.

PROGNOSIS

Cautious.

COMMENTS

Fifteen to 30% of melanocytic skin tumours in dogs are histologically malignant according to different surveys. Approximately 35% of these histologically malignant tumours are cured surgically, however in 65% of cases there is recurrence, sometimes inoperable, or metastasis to lymph nodes or lungs. Behaviour is poorly correlated with histological appearance, making outcome difficult to predict, as even histologically benign melanomas may still be behaviourally malignant.

Although mucocutaneous tumours in general tend to be malignant, those on eyelids, particularly where they are in haired skin, are usually benign. Unfortunately this tumour is one of the rare malignant ones at this site. Monitoring is recommended.

Karen A Dunn BVSc (Hons) MRCVS

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Report 2

Path Number 

Charge code 

Date Rec/rep 

Owner Ref 

Animal ID 

Species Canine

Breed Cross

Age 9Y

Sex FN

Previous report

Sample Site: Mammary gland

DESCRIPTION

Number of sections examined - 2 pieces. The tumour is multilobular and secretory. The epithelium forms tubules, papillary proliferations and solid masses with multifocal areas of squamous metaplasia and central keratinisation. There is moderate cellular atypia and a variable mitotic rate. Neoplastic cells are spreading through the ductal system and focally invading the surrounding inflammatory and fibrous reaction but no emboli were seen in lymphatics. Excision margins are not present in the plane of section. The lymph node has multiple primary follicles, an expanded paracortex and focal plasma cell proliferation but no evidence of metastasis in the section examined.

DIAGNOSIS

Simple adenocarcinoma (squamous cell carcinoma type), with focal early invasion.

Lymphoid hyperplasia.

PROGNOSIS

Prognostic indicators for canine mammary tumours are invasion, histopathological pattern, lymph node involvement (staging), size and hormone receptors. Invasion is the most important. This tumour is invasive and a histological type which has a poor prognosis. Metastasis to regional lymph nodes and lungs is possible.

COMMENTS

Many tumours with squamous differentiation are locally invasive and metastasis in one series (Misdorp) was 60% with median survival time after surgery of 15 months.

Multiple tumours are common. In one lifetime study, 60% female dogs had more than one mammary tumour and in a shorter study, approximately 25% dogs developed more tumours following excision of one. Growth is usually multifocal not seeding.

Dr Catherine L Ross DVM MSc MRCVS

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Report 3

Path Number 

Charge code 

Date Rec/rep 

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Animal ID 

Species Canine

Breed JRT

Age 5Y

Sex FN

Previous ref

Sample/site Medial to left pinna and right shoulder

DESCRIPTION

Number of sections examined - 2. SPECIMEN 1 is the larger sample. The hypodermal mass is interlacing and storiform pattern cellular connective tissue with elongated cells and ovoid nuclei. The cells are moderately pleomorphic with a high mitotic rate. The partly circumscribed mass has a surgical excision margin in the plane of section. SPECIMEN 2: In the dermis is a keratin-filled cyst lined by stratified squamous epithelial cells. The lesion is complete in the plane of section.

DIAGNOSIS

SPECIMEN 1: Sarcoma, probable fibrosarcoma.

SPECIMEN 2: Follicular (epidermoid) cyst.

PROGNOSIS

SPECIMEN 1: Various trials have slightly differing results but "surgically apparent excision" is the most important in prognosis. It is suggested that 75% of those with a "surgical" margin and a low mitotic rate do not recur locally. Metastasis is supposed to be rare but Yager and Wilcock state "there is no good data for dogs". Most recurrence is within a year.

SPECIMEN 2: Cysts are benign but may be multiple.

COMMENTS

SPECIMEN 1 is compatible with a fibrosarcoma, but without marker studies, origin is not entirely certain. Spindle cell tumour of canine soft tissue (Schwannoma, "neurofibroma", "haemangiopericytoma" in the new WHO Classification) is a less likely differential. Yager and Wilcock call this type (which is aggressive) fibrosarcoma and the others spindle cell tumour of soft tissue (i.e. largely based on mitotic rate rather than cytology).

Fibrosarcomas comprise variable percentages depending on pathologist criteria for inclusion. Where approximately 7% of tumours are diagnosed as spindle cell tumours, there are only about 1.5% of fibrosarcomas.

Thomas J Vicek DVM PhD Dip ACVP MRCVS

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Report 4

Path Number

Charge code

Date Rec/rep

Owner Ref

Animal ID

Species Canine

Breed Irish Wolfhound

Age 4Y

Sex F

Previous ref

Sample / site Bridge of nose

DESCRIPTION: 3 x skin biopsies, summary of features:

There is mild acanthosis with focal spongiosis and exocytosis of mainly mononuclear cells. There is a moderate mixed (Histiocytes, lymphocytes and neutrophils represented) superficial and deep perivascular to diffuse dermatitis and a marked perifolliculitis; the same mixed infiltrate extends into the underlying adipose tissue. There is mild inflammation of some sweat glands. Apart from mild focal mural folliculitis the hair follicles appear largely normal. No mites or dermatophytes seen in the sections. There is no evidence of neoplasia in the sections examined.

MORPHOLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS: Superficial and deep perivascular and diffuse dermatitis, perifolliculitis and panniculitis.

AETIOLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS: This cannot be ascertained from the histological features.

COMMENTS:

The skin changes are of a chronic 'stereotypic' perivascular dermatitis reaction pattern which is shared by many common skin diseases. It can be seen in parasitic, bacterial, fungal or allergic dermatitis. This is a non-diagnostic pattern and unfortunately the bulk of inflammatory skin diseases in the dog and cat fall into this category. Further investigations are required to rule in or out these potential causes.

The causesof panniculitis cannot be identified but in general terms panniculitis can be caused by:

1. microorganisms (bacteria, fungi)

2. foreign bodies

3. trauma

4. immune-mediated vascular disease

5. pancreatitis

6. Arthropod bites (e.g. ticks)

Overall the cause of nodules in this case cannot be determined however fresh tissue samples should be submitted for microbiology in an attempt to rule out an infectious agent. I cannot find evidence of an eosinophilic folliculitis and furunculosis which is a differential diagnosis for the clinical signs you describe.

Dr David Shearer BVetMed CertSAD PhD CBiol MIBiol MRCVS

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